JSS 2 BASIC SCIENCE, EASTER TERM, LESSON 6. DRUGS ABUSE
It is natural and right to use drug when one is having an unwarranted or strange feeling of his/her health in relation to Professional health and government approved medical doctors prescription, because, being healthy is one of the reasons for actualizing our lives good aspirations of becoming contributiive citizens to national development. Notably, there are drugs that when taken can help us achieve all forms of stable living such as- drugs to put one to sleep, relieve pains and anxiety, to restore our used energy. And also, there are drugs that affect blood pressure, fertility and appetite. But when these drugs are used without medical supervision, they can cause serious health problems.
- Drug abusers generally do not understanding the risks that drugs pose to physical, mental, social and emotional well-being. Drug abuse (mostly among the young people) can disrupt the lives of users. This is because, drugs misuse often lead to problems at home, at school and may even drop out of school. At home, an abuser may withdraw from family and friends as he or she becomes more dependent on drugs. At work, the influence of drugs may cause poor habits such as lateness or carelessness on the job, and this could lead to loss of job.
By the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
1. List methods of drug use;
2. Identify some common ways youths misused drugs.
3. Discuss the risk factors in drug abuse;
4. Explain and be aware that sharing injection needles increase the spread of HIV/AIDS among drug addicts.
Methods of Drugs Abuse
The taking of a drug for its medically intended purpose, following appropriate amount, frequency, strength and manner is referred to as drug use. In contrast, drug abuse is the taking of a drug for a non-medical purpose and in manner that can damage a person’s health or ability to function. Drug abuse can also be described as taking a drug without proper prescription, or self administration of drug in a way that deviates from the approved medical or social pattern. Lesson to learn from my precepts above is that ‘all drugs can be abused, even those prescribed by the physician. Example, using or administering a drug for the purpose of inducing sleep, alertness or relaxation. All these amount to drug abuse. Though, curiosity, lack of confidence, trying to fit into a peer group, search for excitement, trying to have a grown up feeling, reduction of stress and frustration, and even the availability of the drugs at home and reachable places by young people causes drug abuse and misuse.
Methods of drug misused are ;
1. Ingestion: This also called ‘swallowing’, many drugs such as tablets, capsules, syrups are taken through the 👄 with water or without water.
2. Inhalation: This is an intake of drugs through the respiratory system or organ. Inhalants(anesthetic gases) such as aerosols, petroleum products, or solvents, including cocaine, ate inhaled or sniffed into the body through the nostrils. In whichever way it is inhaled, the drug’s effect on the central nervous system is immediate. These drugs are inhaled to induce intoxication, excitement, aggression or hallucination.
3. Injection: This involved injecting drugs directly into the blood stream, through the capillaries, arteries or veins. Drugs in form of liquid (syrups) and other powdered form, e.g. cocaine, is frequently mixed with a liquid and injected directly into the vein. The intravenous injection results in the most rapid and most intensive sensation.
Drugs like marijuana (Indian hemp) are smoked either rolled in paper, leaf or put in a pipe.
5. Absorption through the skin
Drugs used in this form are mild body creams. Some are used to maintained the skin while some are used to treat skin diseases.
COMMON WAYS YOUTH MISUSE DRUGS
Drugs misused is the wrong use of drugs that differs from the medically-intended purpose, amount, frequency, strength, or manner. Misuse of drugs may occur in the following ways;
1. When a patient misunderstood the direction for prescribed drugs. For example, not taking the drugs at stipulated times, periods, or intervals.
2. When a patient share a prescribed drugs with a friend or family member for whom the drugs was not prescribed for .
3. When a patient take the prescribed drugs for a purpose or condition other than that for which it was intended. Administering drugs intended for the treatment of stomach ache for headache.
4. When a patient take a dosage other than the recommended. In this case, it may involved overuse (or overdose).
5. Taking drugs to induce sleep without seeking for prescription from a qualified medical personnel.
6. Taking drugs to gain confidence or boldness to commit crimes such as, suicide, rape, assault, hurting someone or onself.
7. Taking drugs to achieve full sexual gratification (satisfaction).
8. When any drugs is used in any of the above ways it may cause health problems. For example, under-dosage of an antibiotics, which is administered over a periods of time, but for less than the recommended period leads to development of drug resistance by the causal-micro organism or parasites. Also, overdose of drugs such as Chloroquine through self-medication and its continuous use for a long period can cause blindness or heart failure.
Social Risk Factors in Drug Abuse
The following are the social risk factors of drugs use and abuse:
1. Being brought up in a drugs dependent family: A child that grows up in this type of family will see nothing wrong in using drugs any how.
2. Having negative self-esteem
A person with negative self-esteemb is never satisfied with needs and may be setting unrealistic goals.
3. Being unable to resist peer pressure
In some groups, drugs are often a part of social events and in the desire to fit in, the person certainly has to conform to the norms or rules of the group.
4. Being economically disadvantaged
The little money the drugs user has is always spent on drugs.
5. Experiencing family disruption
A drug abuser may withdraw from family and friends as he or she becomes more dependent on drugs.
6. Mind-altering drugs, e.g alcohol and marijuana slow users’ reaction and often impairs users’ sense of reasoning and judgment.
Other risks or consequences of drug abuse include:
i). The high tendency to attempt or commit suicid, risk of contracting HIV infection;
ii). Gradual death of the liver(from chronic use of alcohol).
iii) Arrest by the NDLEA for drug possession;
iv) Impaired sense of reasoning;
v). Sexually transmitted diseases;
vi). Unwanted pregnancy.
Drug use and HIV/AIDS
Human immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) live only within body cells and blood fluids, and not outside of the body. It can be transmitted through the anal or virgina sexual intercourse with infected person, transfusion of infected blood, infected mother to unborn child and sharp objects such as needles, knives,razor and blades. Therefore students are adviced to stay away from sharp objects at all times.
Needles or syringes cotton wool used to inject drugs such as herion and cocaine are sometimes contaminated with the blood of the user. If such needles are shared, a small amount of one person’s blood can be directly injected into another person’s blood stream. Injectable drugs, e.g. Heroin are responsible for much of the spread of HIV infection among injectable drugs users. It is, therefore, generally unsafe to share needles as HIV can easily be transmitted from an infected person to a healthy person by this means.
JSS 2 BASIC SCIENCE, EASTER TERM, LESSON 7: LIVING THINGS HABITAT Objectives: By the end of this lesaon, HAMASCHIAC JSS2 Students should able to: 1. Mention the different habitats of living things. 2. Identify the living organisms found in different habitats. 3. List the distinguishing features found in the different habitats. Introduction Every living organism, …. Read More
JSS2 BASIC SCIENCE, EASTER TERM, LESSON8. LIVING THINGS (UNIQUENESS OF MAN). Objectives At the end of this lesson, student should be able to: 1. Describe intelligence as a characteristic of human beings; 2. List three uses of intelligence to human beings; 3. Apply basic intelligence skills, e.g. observation, measurement of time and weight, and inference. …. Read More
JSS2 BASIC SCIENCE, EASTER TERM, LESSON 9. CHANGES IN MATTER Performance Objectives: At the end of this lesson, students should be able to: 1. Describe different ways in which matter changes; 2. Identify the changes as temporary or permanent changes; 3. Distinguish between temporary and permanent changes; 4. State the causes of such changes. Lesson …. Read More
JSS 2 BASIC SCIENCE, EASTER TERM, LESSON 10. HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM AND MOVEMENT Most animals you know have in their bodies very hard parts called bones. Touch your fingers and other parts of your body. You will find that bones supporting every part of the body , the head, the trunk and the limbs. Imagine …. Read More
JSS 2 BASIC SCIENCE, EASTER TERM, LESSON 11. HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM Joints The point where two bones meet is called joints. The bones of the body are attached together by joints. Imagine what the human skeleton will look like if there were no joints. It will look like a pole which may not be able …. Read More
h YHWH HAMASCHIAC SCHOOL EXAMINATION TERM: Easter Term COURSE: Basic Science CLASS: JSS 2 DATE : TIME:2:00Hours INSTRUCTIONS: This Examinations is made up of two sections, A&B. Answer all the questions in this section A. 1. ………….is the point where bones meet in body. (A) hair (B) hand (C)*joints (D) eyes. 2. The presence of …. Read More
JSS2 BASIC SCIENCE, SPRING TERM, RECAP(REVISION) OF EASTER TERM. ANSWERS FOR EASTER TERM EXAMINATION SECTION A (1C) (2B) (3A) (4A) (5B) (6A) (7C) (8D). (9A) (10B) (11C) (13D) (14A) (15A) (16B)(17A)(18A)(19C)(20A). 1. List five benefits of the human brain. i) think, ii) reason, iii), remember vi) solve problems, v) make inference, vi) communicate(speak) vii) control …. Read More
JSS2 BASIC SCIENCE, SPRING TERM LESSON TWO, HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Introduction Food performance different by functions in the body. Food enables the body to produce the energy required for various human activities. Food substances are used by the body to build new body cells, protect the body from diseases. However, human body does not depend …. Read More
JSS2 BASIC SCIENC, SPRING TERM, LESSON THREE…HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. Introduction The cells of the body required oxygen and digested food substances in order to produce the energy need for our daily activities. These materials( oxygen and food substances) are not produced by all the cells. Remember from our Wednesday 27th/04/2021 I told you that oxygen …. Read More
YESHUA HAMASCHIAC, JSS2 BASIC SCIENCE, CHRISTMAS TERM, LESSON ONE….FAMILY HEALTH. Lesson Preamble(Introduction) Everyone likes good and productive health and well-being, and every person wants to live a healthy live. Yet sometimes we fall sick. Disease disrupt the normal functions of the body and affect a person’s work and social activities. Disease also affect the economy …. Read More
YHWH HAMASCHIAC SCHOOLS INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATION TERM: Spring/Third Term, SUBJECT: Basic Science CLASS: JSS2 TIME: GUIDE: Answer only four questions in all and all questions carries equal marks. 1. List all the parts of the digestive systems in human. 2. Explain in details the two major regions of oil refineries in Nigeria where crude oil can …. Read More
JSS2 BASIC SCIENCE, SPRING/THIRD TERM, LESSON ELEVEN… . .USES OF PETROCHEMICALS The petroleum companies produce a wide range of products by different process. The different fractions produced from refining crude oil and the products of other processes are often used to produce chemicals obtained from oil called petrochemical. It economical to convert some of the …. Read More
YHWH HAMASCHIAC SCHOOLS INTERNATIONAL CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT TEST. TERM: Spring/Third Term, SUBJECT: BASIC SCIENCE CLASS: JSS2 TIME: GUIDE: Answer only four questions in all and all questions carries equal marks. 1. List the six parts of the human digestive system. 10Marks 2. Explain in details the two major regions of oil refineries in Nigeria where crude …. Read More
YHWH HAMASCHIAC SCHOOLS INTERNATIONAL CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT TEST. TERM: Spring/Third Term, SUBJECT: BASIC SCIENCE CLASS: JSS2 TIME:2hours GUIDE: Answer only four questions in all and all questions carries equal marks. 1. List all the parts of the digestive systems in human. 2. Explain in details the two major regions of oil refineries in Nigeria where crude …. Read More
YHWH HAMASCHIAC INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL. JSS2 Student’s Spring/Third Term areas of concentration for Spring Term Continuous assessment test. 1.Areas of concentration for HOME ECONOMIC JSS2 are on lesson 2, 3& 5. 2. Areas of concentration for Basic Science JSS2 are on lesson lesson 2, 4, 6 7,& 8. 3. Areas of concentration for Civic Education JSS2 …. Read More
JSS2 BSC, SPRING TERM, LESSON TEN…… THERMAL ENERGY. THERMAL ENERGY SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of this lesson, students should be able to; Define thermal energy. Explain the concept of heat flow. List and describe three methods of heat transfer. State real life applications of heat conduction. Meaning: Thermal energy is the energy that is …. Read More
JSS2 BSC, SPRING TERM, LESSON NINE…….CRUDE OIL APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION 1. Housing and clothing: In some hot countries most of the houses are painted white. Whites reflects most of the radiation that hits it away and this keeps the building cooler. Similarly ,people in hot countries often wear white or light colour cloth to absorb …. Read More
JSS2 BASIC SCIENCE, SPRING TERM, LESSON EIGHT……,.CRUDE OIL. USES OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROCHEMICALS 1.PETROLEUME GASES These gases are liberated at the top of the column at the temperature below 40⁰C. They are mainly hydrocarbons consisting of 1-4 carbon atom per molecule, example methane, ethane, propane, butane and ethene. They are used mainly as fuel …. Read More
JSS2 BSC, SPRING TERM, LESSON SEVEN………HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (COMPLETE NOTE) DIGESTION OF FOOD Digestion of food takes place in stages from the time it enters the mouths. Digestion starts in the mouth for certain classes of food while for others, digestion starts much later as the food goes down the digestive system, certain things happen. …. Read More
JSS2 BSC, SPRING TERM, LESSON SIX………HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (COMPLETE NOTE) DIGESTION OF FOOD Digestion of food takes place in stages from the time it enters the mouths. Digestion starts in the mouth for certain classes of food while for others, digestion starts much later as the food goes down the digestive system, certain things happen. …. Read More
JSS2 BASIC SCIENCE, SPRING TERM, LESSON FIVE…..HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Lesson Introduction (preamble). Feeding is an important characteristics of all living things. Human beings move about in search of food because they depend on food for the energy they require. From our previous class you learnt that food substances are circulated in the body in simple …. Read More
JSS 2 BASIC SCIENCE, SPRING TERM, LESSON FOUR….HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. Structure of the blood Vessel Blood vessels There are three major types of blood vessels on the human circulatory system. These are arteries, veins and capilliaries. Their walls vary in thickness and Capillaries are tiny permeable blood vessels, which are only cell thick. The capillaries …. Read More
JSS 2 BASIC SCIENCE, SPRING TERM, LESSON FOUR….HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. Structure of the blood Vessels Blood vessels There are three major types of blood vessels on the human circulatory system. These are arteries, veins and capilliaries. Their walls vary in thickness and Capillaries are tiny permeable blood vessels, which are only cell thick. The capillaries …. Read More