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    Francis Ofem
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    HAMASHIAC CHRISTMAS TERM SS2 CIVIC EDUCATION LESSON_3 PRESERVATION OF OUR TRADITIONS,, CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS IN NIGERIA
    CONTENT:
    1.Meaning of Basic Concepts.
    2. Cultural Rights.
    3. Ways of Preserving our Tradition, Customs and Beliefs in Nigeria.
    Meaning of Basic Concepts
    Belief is a frame of our mind that something is in existence or a phenomenon is true. For instance, we as human have a dominant belief that a Supreme Being exist that rules and regulate the universe.
    Customs are things or norms that are observed by people in a particular society because it is traditional. Which is vital to let you know that custom is a way of life. Just as education from ancient and modern society is a way of every human irrespective of race, complexion and family background of life and is expected to acquire for adequate development to be attained.
    Tradition: this is a way of doing things that has been in existence over decades. It can also be seen as the customary pattern of action. Note that we can modify traditional ways of doing things to suit with our generation needs. For instance online learning.
    CULTURE
    The culture of a people consists of the habits of the people and the way they generally behave within their enclave. It also shows how people respond to or the contact on issues with the outside world. For instance one of the dominant way of life in Nigeria as a people is ‘respect to elders and traditions.
    I want you to note that a society is identified by its traditions, customs, and cultural beliefs.
    Though over the years we have observed that our traditions, customs and beliefs changes, yet not all their elements are amenable to changes because certain core values remain immutable to all generations. This mean that ‘ the cultural norms which are time-dependent shade off their relevance over time and are supplant with new cultural values owing to incessant development, new morals, superior ideals and ideas, technology and scientific discoveries.
    Culture is Dynamic: This means that inferior or weak cultures gives way to superior or dominant cultures. It should be noted that when inferior cultures are steadily pining away by callopsing into a superior culture, it is known as cultural lag.
    Cultural Lag: This refers to inconsistencies in a cultural system especially in the relationship between technology and non material culture. Note that the inability of certain sections of the society to cope with the speed of change is a form of cultural lag.
    Cultural Universal: This refers to those cultures with superior and dominant growing traits with international respect and acceptance. For example, the Christian traditions, customs, and beliefs as vocalized by the Holy Roman Empire have become cultural universal as they form what is today known as Western Civilization or life style practiced globally.
    Take note; the social heritage of a people which embraces the totality of their way of life is known as culture.
    TYPES OF CULTURE
    There are two categories of culture which are
    1. Material Culture; these refers to all the physical and concrete artefacts and objects such as computers, buildings, canoes and currency that human utilizes.
    2. Non-material Culture; These refers to all the abstract creations of man like beliefs, value system, symbols norms, customs and language.
    CULTRURAL RIGHTS
    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 articulated by the United Nations Organization (UNO) while recognizing social, political,economic legal and civic rights included cultural rights as being fundamental to human existence. Cultural rights in accordance with this charter included:
    I. The right to belong to any cultural group or gathering.
    ii. The rights to worship the god of the land or community.
    iii. The right to participate in any cultural ceremony of the community.
    iv. The right to wear one’s traditional or cultural attire at any place within the country.
    v. The right to be given a traditional or natural name as of identity by one’s parents or guardians.
    vi. The right to speak one’s native language anywhere within the country
    vii. The rights to wear traditional mark on any part of the body of one’s parent’s choice.
    viii. The right to be involved in intra and inter marriage affairs within and outside one’s community.
    ix. The right to practice one’s cultiral arts and acts like crafts, palm tapping, cultural dance and music,masquerade, fishing and farming.
    x. The right to eat one’s traditional food if one wishes to do so.
    xi. The rights to project, promote, protect and defend the cultural and traditional values of one’s local community and society as a whole.
    However, the precepts above conote that everyone is born into a given custom, tradition and belief which form his/her cultural world view and which he has exclusive rights to practise so long as it does not breach the universal norms and fundamental rights of other people and climes.
    ASSESSMENT
    1.What is culture?
    2.What is Beliefs?
    3. Highlights some basic categories culture.
    4. A society is identify by ……….. ,………..and ……..
    5.

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